> Cancer Awareness
There are five types of gynaecological cancers – Cervical Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, Uterine (or Womb) Cancer, Vaginal Cancer and Vulvar Cancer.
Learn to spot the symptoms of the five types of gynaecological cancers and pass the knowledge to your loved ones. Early detection can save lives
Usually caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Cervical Cancer occurs when the cells of the cervix grow abnormally.
Ovarian Cancer develops when the cells in the ovary grow and multiply too quickly, damaging healthy tissue.
Uterine cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus.
This is a rare kind of cancer and women who have the human papillomavirus (HPV) are at higher risk of developing it.
Vulvar cancer is a type of cancer that occurs at the area of the skin that surrounds the urethra and vagina.
Some Common Symptoms:
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
- Feeling full too quickly or having difficulty in eating
- More frequent or urgent need to urinate and/or constipation
- Abdominal or back pain
- Itching, burning, pain, or tenderness of the vulva
- Changes in vulva colour or skin, rashes, sores, or warts
Breast cancer is a disease in which a malignant tumour develops in the cells of the breast. A malignant tumour is a group of cancer cells that can invade the surrounding tissues or spread to distant areas of the body.
In Singapore, one out of 11 women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime.
- If you are 20 years old and above, it is advisable for you to do a monthly breast self-examination. This is an important first step in discovering any unusual lumps or changes in your breasts.
- The best time to do breast self-examination is about 7 to 10 days after the start of your menses, when the breasts are the least tender. If you discover lumps or other unusual signs in your breasts, please see a doctor promptly.
Signs and symptoms:
Lung cancer is a condition where abnormal cells in one or both of the lungs divide uncontrollably. This causes the growth of tumours that reduce a person’s ability to breathe.
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in Singaporean males and the third most common cancer in Singaporean females. According to the Singapore Cancer Registry Annual Registry Report (Trends in Cancer Incidence in Singapore 2010-2014), lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Singapore.
Causes of Lung Cancer
The following are some of the causes of lung cancer:
Smoking and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke
Smoking is one of the leading causes for lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked over time. For non-smokers, the risk of lung cancer increases if there is constant exposure to secondhand smoke.
Exposure to Radon Gas
Radon is a radioactive gas produced by the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rocks and water, which eventually becomes part of the air that we breathe. Unsafe levels of radon can accumulate in any building or homes.
Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens
Workplace exposure to asbestos are common for people who work in shipyards, mines and places where insulation is used. Other substances such as arsenic, chromium and nickel also can increase the risks of developing lung cancer.
Family History of Lung Cancer
Those with a parent or sibling with lung cancer have an increased risk of the disease.
Usually, the symptoms of lung cancer will only show when the disease is in an advanced stage.
The symptoms are:
- A cough that does not heal or gets worse
- Coughing up blood (even for small amount)
- Chest pain
- Unexplained weight loss
- Unexplained loss of appetite
- Feeling fatigue and exhausted for no apparent reason
- Repeated bouts of bronchitis and pneumonia
Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. The prostate gland is a part of the male reproductive system located below the bladder and in front of the rectum.
Prostate Cancer occurs when the cells in the prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably. The prostate gland is found only in males. Its size can change with age.
Causes of Prostate Cancer
The following are some of the causes of Prostate cancer:
- Prostate cancer is rare in men under the age of 40. The risk of getting the cancer increases with age.
- Those with relatives diagnosed with prostate cancer are at higher risk of getting the disease themselves. It is recommended for men with prostate cancer in their family history to start going for screening after 40.
Signs and symptoms
Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is the lower part of the body’s digestive system. During digestion, food moves through the stomach and small intestine into the colon.
The colon absorbs water and nutrients from the food and stores waste matter (stool). Stool moves from the colon into the rectum before it leaves the body.
Video interview by Prof Francis Seow-Choen to understand more about Colorectal Cancer
Learn more about Colorectal Cancer with Prof Francis Seow-Choen, a well-known Colorectal Surgeon in Singapore and the region. In this video (Part 1), Prof Seow explains the risks and factors of Colorectal Cancer and in (Part 2), he shares more about the signs and symptoms of Colorectal Cancer and how advanced medical technology in Singapore can help to treat it.