Learn more about: Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Colon Cancer, Lymphoma, Melanoma Tumour and Lymphoma
The breast is made up of glands called lobules that can make milk and thin tubes called ducts that carry the milk from the lobules to the nipple. Breast tissue also contains fat and connective tissue, lymph nodes, and blood vessels.
The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which begins in the cells of the ducts. Breast cancer can also begin in the cells of the lobules and in other tissues in the breast. Invasive breast cancer is breast cancer that has spread from where it began in the ducts or lobules to surrounding tissue.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the worldwide. It can occur in both men and women, but it is very rare in men.
The lungs are a pair of cone-shaped breathing organs inside the chest. The lungs bring oxygen into the body when breathing in and send carbon dioxide out of the body when breathing out.
The two main types of lung cancer are non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. The types are based on the way the cells look under a microscope. Non-small cell lung cancer is much more common than small cell lung cancer.
After lung cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the lungs or to other parts of the body–staging.
Tests and procedures to detect, diagnose, and stage non-small cell lung cancer are often done at the same time. Some of the following tests and procedures may be used: physical exam and history, laboratory tests, chest X-ray, CT scan, sputum cytology, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, bronchoscopy, thoracoscopy, thoracentesis and pathology.
Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the three main methods of cancer treatment. The choice of treatment will depend on where the cancer is, the type of lung cancer, the stage of cancer and the general health of the patient.
Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of lung cancer.
For most patients with lung cancer, current treatments do not cure the cancer.
Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is the lower part of the body’s digestive system. During digestion, food moves through the stomach and small intestine into the colon. The colon absorbs water and nutrients from the food and stores waste matter (stool). Stool moves from the colon into the rectum before it leaves the body.
The skin protects against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. Skin also helps control body temperature and stores water and fat. Skin cancer usually forms in skin that has been exposed to sunlight but can occur anywhere on the body. Skin has several layers. Skin cancer begins in the epidermis (outer layer), which is made up of squamous cells, basal cells, and melanocytes. There are several different types of skin cancer. Squamous cell and basal cell skin cancers are sometimes called non-melanoma skin cancers. Non-melanoma skin cancer usually responds to treatment and rarely spreads to other parts of the body. Melanoma is more aggressive than most other types of skin cancer. If it isn’t diagnosed early, it is likely to invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. If a mole or pigmented area of the skin changes or looks abnormal, skin exam and biopsy can help find and diagnose melanoma.
Different types of treatment are available for patients with melanoma. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. Five types of standard treatment are used: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, biologic therapy, targeted therapy.
Lymphoma is cancer that begins in cells of the lymph system. The lymph system is part of the immune system, which helps the body fight infection and disease. Because lymph tissue is found all through the body, lymphoma can begin almost anywhere.